Cutting through the jargon
This glossary is a resource aimed at helping share and simplify both generic and industry specific information, expertise and knowledge. This service is provided as a committment to visitors to our site and the industry as whole. Although we aim to ensure that all the content is correct, please bear in mind that some areas of the industry move fast and terminology and its application can change.
Fur from the common or wild rabbit.
A knitting stitch that produces a herringbone effect with a rib back.
RAF Number One Dress
Ceremonial RAF Dress Uniform.
The waste fabric, whether woven or knitted, that is left after a garment has been cut out. The term also covers piece ends and discarded pattern bunches.
Worn garments that have been discarded.
The production of a layer of protruding fibres on the surface of fabrics by brushing, teazing, or rubbing.
Refers to knit fabric made a a raschel machine, a warp knitting machine capable of a wide variety of intricate designs, various surface textures, and open work effects.
A lace fabric knit on a raschel machine. Usually moderately priced.
Rate of dyeing.
The rate at which a dye is absorbed by a substrate under specified conditions. Note: it may be expressed quantitatively in several ways, such as the weight of dye absorbed in unit time, or the time taken for the substrate to absorb a given fraction of the amount of dye which it will absorb at equilibrium.
A plain weave , loosely constructed fabric with a rough, nubby texture resulting from the use of ratine yarn, a knotted, curly, plied yarn. Used for drapery, dresses and women's sportswear.
Continuous filaments or strands containing no twist, drawn off or reeled from silk cocoons.
A term used to describe manufactured fibres composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibres composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups. The iso generic names are viscose, modal and cupro.
The shortening of fibres in a sliver or top by a process similar in principle to stretch breaking. Re-breaking may be intended to shorten a limited number of over length fibres or to reduce the average length.
Historical re-enactment a type of role play in which participants re-enactment historaical events. Often dressing in re-created period clothing.
Reaction spinning (man-made-fibre production)
A process in which polymerization is achieved during the extrusion of reactants through a spinneret system.
A dye that, under suitable conditions, is capable of reacting chemically with a substrate.
The percentage that, in the calculation of commercial weight of textile material and of yarn linear density is added to the oven-dry weight. The determination of this weight may or may not be preceded by washing to remove natural or added oils and dressings. The recommended allowance is arbitrarily chosen according to commercial practice and includes the moisture regain. It may also include the normal finish that is added to impart satisfactory textile qualities to the material.
Fabrics used to make re-enactment garments. Periods include Medieval, Napoleonic, Tudor, War of the Roses, English Civil War, Americal Civil War, Boer War, World War 1 and World War 2. Cloth can be used for German re-enactment, World War 1 re-enactment, World War 2 re-enactment ,German Militaria , British Militaria, Re-enactment costumes, re-enactment civil war.
The weight of moisture present in a textile material expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight.
A man-made fibre produced from a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer by a process that includes regeneration of the original polymer structure.
Uniforms used by army regiments for parades and ceremonial duties.
The ratio of the actual pressure of the water vapour in the atmosphere to the saturation water vapour at the same temperature. The ratio is usually expressed as a percentage e.g. 65 % rh.
The releasing of stresses in textile materials.
A plain weave fabric with ridges in the filling. Used for drapery, upholstery, neckties, robes.
A chemical group that recurs in the backbone of a polymer.
The latent shrinkage of a fibre, filament, yam, or fabric.
A fabric that has been treated with a synthetic film-forming polymer (resin) . This may be done to make the fabric firmer, heavier, more stable, to add wrinkle resistance, to reduce shrinkage or to create surface effect such as embossing or glazing.
A chemical is printed on certain areas of the fabric to make those areas resistant to dye. Allows for the printing of small or fine motifs in the design.
Wool rags and manufactured waste, torn up and reprocessed into fibres again, and used for such fabrics as are composed of shoddy and mungo yarns.
1. Any fabric with a cord or ridge effect . 2. A knit fabric made with plain stitches alternating with purl stitches. Rib knits have natural stretch properties.
A spinning system in which twist is inserted in a yarn by using a revolving traveller. The yarn is wound on since the rotational speed of the package is greater than that of the traveller.
A yarn spinning method in which roving ( a thin strand of fiber with very little twist) is fed to a "traveler" with rotates around the edge of a ring. Inside the ring is a faster rotating bobbin . The process simultaneously twists the roving into yarn and winds it around the bobbin. Ring spun yarns are generally stronger than open end yarns.
A woven fabric with corded yarns spaced at regular intervals in both the warp and filling, forming squares on the surface of the fabric. Originally intended so a tear in the fabric would not spread. Used mainly for outerwear and active wear.
Originally this described all the furniture and effects belonging to a person, then the meaning was gradually reduced until it denotes a person's collection of clothing.
A method of printing by passing the fabric over metal rollers on which the design has been engraved. One roller is used for each color. Used for printing long runs with good register and a clear, sharp design.
The more general term is breaking and consists of deformation of the plant structure by flattening the stem, loosening the bond between the fibre bundles and the wood, and breaking the woody part into short pieces, to facilitate their removal from the fibre by scutching.
Period in western history when ancient rome was the centre of power of the world. The period from about 2 nd century BC to 455 AD.
Rotary screen printed
In screen printing a separate screen is created for each color . The open mesh part of the screen corresponds to the area to be printed in that color. The areas where color is not to pass through are blocked. Dye paste is forced through the open mesh area with a squeegee. In rotary screen printing the squeegees are contained within cylindrical screens aligned one after the other, and the fabric moves continuously. Rotary printing is a much faster process than flat screen printing but the pattern repeat is limited by the circumference of the cylinders.
A name given, individually or collectively, to the relatively fine fibrous strands used in the later or final processes of preparation for spinning.
Prince of Wales Own Royal Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army from 1969 to 1992. Amalgamated with Kings Hussars in 1992 to form the Kings Royal Hussars.
The wider and flattened portion of a guard hair. In many guard hairs the fine shaft widens out into a flattened shield, the proportion of shaft to shield varying in different types of fibres.
A method of producing a nonwoven fabric by mechanically entangling the fibers with high pressure water jets . Also called hydroentangled fabric.
HAINSWORTH FABRICS ON PARADE AT CORONATION FESTIVAL AS THEY WERE AT THE CORONATION 60 YEARS AGO
Sixty years ago, Yorkshire textile mill Hainsworth provided the iconic cloth for the military to wea...
Did You Know...
When the Breitling Orbiter 3 became the first hot air balloon to successfully circumnavigate the globe in 1999, it did so in no small part to Hainsworth fabrics which were pivotal to the balloon’s construction.