Cutting through the jargon
This glossary is a resource aimed at helping share and simplify both generic and industry specific information, expertise and knowledge. This service is provided as a committment to visitors to our site and the industry as whole. Although we aim to ensure that all the content is correct, please bear in mind that some areas of the industry move fast and terminology and its application can change.
A term denoting that a textile article can be washed in a domestic washing machine to remove dirt and other extraneous substances using an aqueous detergent solution at elevated temperatures.
Wax Museum in London with branches in other cities set up by Wax Sculpture Marie Tussaud.
A fibre manufactured by man as distinct from a fibre that occurs naturally.
A machine whose purpose is to express liquid from moving textiles by passage through a nip. The textile may be in rope form or in open width, and the mangle may consist of two or more rollers (bowls) running in contact.
To run together and draft into one, two slubbings or rovings of different colour or lustre.
Marl effect yarn (continuous-filament)
Two single, continuous-filament yarns, of different solid colours or dyeing properties (subsequently dyed) doubled together., also termed ingrain (filament yarn).
Marl yarn (woollen)
A yarn consisting of two woollen-spun single ends of different colours twisted together.
Yarns made up of 2 different colors, produced by combining fiber strands (rovings) of 2 different colors, or twisting together 2 yarns of different colors, or by cross dyeing plied yarns of 2 different fibers.
Wool that has been sorted.
Fabrics that have stretch properties but no not use spandex or other stretch yarns. The stretch is usually created in the finishing process.
Period of history approximately dating from 5th Century to th 16th Century. Cloth used by re-enactors relating to the Middle Ages.
A variation in tone or mottled look . May be done by mixing fibers or yarn of different colors together, printing of the top before spinning the yarn, or cross dyeing the fabric.
Melt spinning (man-made fibre production)
Conversion of a molten polymer into filaments by extrusion and subsequent cooling of the extrudate.
Descriptive of man-made filaments produced by melt-spinning.
A heavily felted, tightly woven fabric with a sheared nap giving it a smooth surface. It is almost always of wool or a wool blend. Used mainly for coats but lighter weights may be used for other apparel.
A finishing process for cotton using caustic soda which may be applied at the yarn or fabric stage resulting in additional luster, improved strength and an improved ability to take dye.
An individual who or an organization which locates a supplier and purchases grey fabric, procures its finishing and then re-sells the finished fabric to customers.
(1) wool from merino sheep. The merino breed of sheep originated in spain and the wool is noted for its fineness and whiteness.Refers to wool from the merino sheep which produces a fine, strong elastic fiber of very high quality . It can be washed to a clean white color and has good felting and spinning characteristics.
Wool from Merino Sheep. Merino Sheep originated in Spain they produce some of the finest and softest wools.
A general term for fabric with open spaces between the yarns. It may be knit , woven or knotted (net) in construction.
Uniform worn by the services when dining.
Metal (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres made from any metal.
A highly lustrous, reflective fabric that has the appearance of metal. May be coated or made from synthetic yarns in metallic colours.
Descriptive of objects that exhibit metamerism.
A phenomenon whereby the nature of the colour difference between two similarly coloured objects, changes with change in the spectral distribution (characteristics) of the illuminant., note 1: metamerism is most frequently seen when two coloured objects match in daylight, but differ markedly in colour when viewed in tungsten-filament light. This arises because the visible absorption spectra of the two objects differ significantly, although the tristimulus values in daylight are identical., note 2: this term is often used loosely to describe the behavior of a single coloured object that shows a marked change of colour as the illuminant changes. Use of this term in this way is incorrect: this effect should be described as lack of colour constancy.
Extremely fine synthetic fiber used to produce soft, lightweight fabrics . Microfiber is often defined as fibers of less than 1 denier per filament but the term is used loosely in the industry. May be polyester, nylon, acrylic, rayon or other fibers. Used for rainwear, outerwear and various other types of apparel.
A warp knit process resulting in a fabric with a fine rib on the face and a diamond effect on the back. Used for women's lingerie and other apparel.
A superficial growth of certain species of fungi., note: on textile materials, this may lead to discoloration, tendering, and variation in properties.
Person or company that makes repairs or alters military garments.
A method of compressing , shrinking and felting a fabric through the use of moisture heat and mechanical pressure. Usually done on wool and wool blends such as melton. The process often obscure the weave.
Milling (fabric finishing)
The process of consolidating or compacting woven or knitted fabrics that usually, although not exclusively contain wool., note., the treatment, which is usually given in a cylinder milling machine or in milling stocks, produces relative motion between the fibres of a fabric. That have been wetted out and swollen with a liquid of suitable ph. Depending on the type of fibre and structure of the fabric and on variations in the conditions of milling, a wide range of effects can be obtained varying from a slight alteration in handle to a dense matting with considerable reduction in area.
A woven fabric made on a dobby loom with an open mesh design that simulates a leno weave by interlacing and grouping the warp and weft yarns with spaces between the groups. Warp yarns are not paired as in a true leno weave.
MOD Uniform Baratheas
Smooth faced worsted cloth spun from evenly combed long staple fibres woven with a twilled hopsack weave used for military garments.
Modacrylic (fibre) (generic name)
Fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain between 35% and 85% (by mass) of recurring cyanoethane (acrylonitrile) groups.
Modal (fibre) (generic name)
A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by processes giving a high tenacity and a high wet modulus. These fibres must be able, in the wet state, to withstand without breaking a force of 22.o cn per tex. Under this force, the elongation in the wet state should not be greater than 15%.
French word for the outer layer of a skirt. The underlayer was called secrète.
(1) fibre from the angora goat (capra hircus), (2) descriptive of yams spun from mohair.
A ribbed or corded fabric that has been subjected to heat and heavy pressure by rollers after weaving so as to present a rippled appearance. The effect arises from differences in reflection of the flattened and the unaffected parts. This type of fabric is also correctly described as watered.
A wavy watermark pattern produced by calendering 2 layers of fabric together or embossing with an engraved roller. This causes the embossed or crushed parts of the fabric to reflect light differently . It is often done on corded fabrics and is often used for upholstery and drapery.
Moisture content, percentage
The weight of moisture in a material expressed as a percentage of the total weight.
A term used mainly in the U.K, for wool containing vegetable matter (straw, hay, twigs, etc.,) picked up by sheep during grazing.
Molar mass (polymer)
The average of the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms present in the chains of macromolecules in a polymer. This average will in general depend upon the basis on which calculated, and this should be stated, e.g., it may be based on a number average or a mass average.
A strong, heavy, woven fabric with a short, smooth nap produced by brushing and shearing the surface. Usually of cotton.
Molten-metal dyeing process
A method of continuous dyeing in which material is impregnated with an aqueous liquid dye and chemicals and then passed through a bath of liquid low-melting alloy usually below 100˚c
A heavy, coarse, loosely woven fabric made in a basket weave . Used for drapery, upholstery and other home furnishings.
A yam composed of one filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of more than one filament are usually referred to as multifilament .
Refers to a design with one colour.
A firm double woven pile fabric used mainly for upholstery . Pile may be cut , uncut or partially cut.
A cap, worn usually by children, covering, apart from the back, the back of the neck through a long, suspended flap.
Moss crepe/pebble crepe
A woven fabric with a characteristic grainy surface and often a spongy hand. Generally made with high twist yarn in a crepe weave. Used in women's suits, dresses etc.
Soft, thin, plain weave fabric usually of cotton or silk.
A yarn composed of filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of one filament are usually referred to as monofilament .
Descriptive of a fibre or filament whose cross-section resembles a polygon but has concave sides and rounded vertices (lobes)., note: the prefixes tri- (3), penta- (5), hexa- (6), octa- (8), etc., are used with the suffix -lobal to indicate the number of lobes.
The fibrous material made in the woollen trade by pulling down new or old hard-woven or milled fabric or felt in rag form.
A large group of plain weave cotton or cotton blend fabrics. They cover a variety of weights from light, fine sheers to heavier sheetings. Used in interfacings, dresses, shirts, sheets, furniture covers, and many other applications .
A plain-knitted fabric of loose texture, usually cotton, made on a multi-feeder circular-knitting machine.
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An established name
The Hainsworth brand has been synonymous with high quality wool and textile manufacturer for over 225 years, ever since Abimelech Hainsworth started work in 1753.