Cutting through the jargon
This glossary is a resource aimed at helping share and simplify both generic and industry specific information, expertise and knowledge. This service is provided as a committment to visitors to our site and the industry as whole. Although we aim to ensure that all the content is correct, please bear in mind that some areas of the industry move fast and terminology and its application can change.
A product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibres and/or filament(s) with or without twist. Note 1: assemblies of fibres or filaments are usually given other names during the stages that lead to the production of yarn, e.g., tow, slubbing, sliver, or roving. Except in the case of continuous-filaments or tape yarns, any tensile strength possessed by the assemblies at these stages is generally the minimum that can hold them together during processing. Note 2: staple, continuous filament, and mono-filament yarns are included. Note 3: no distinction is made between single, folded and cabled yarns. Note 4: zero-twist continuous filament yarns are included. Note 5: zero-twist and self-twist staple yarn are included. Note 6: by the definition of fibre and filament, paper, metal, film and glass yarns are included.
Fabrics which have had the yarns colored before the fabric is woven. Used to produce stripes plaids or tapestries.
Yarn dyed and overdyed
A fabric which has been first yarn dyed, then piece dyed in a lighter shade that allows the yarn dye pattern to show through.
Yarn linear density
The coarseness or fineness of yarn or other linear textile material.
The process of conferring stability of form upon yarns usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions
A yarn in which there are dissimilar component yams especially when these are of fibre and filaments. (1) descriptive of full drawn continuous-filament yarns substantially without twist and untextured (see also twistless yarn.) (2) a synonym for straw (see yarn, straw).
A thread produced by one unit of a spinning machine or of a silk reel.
Commonly used to describe a yarn that consists of staple fibres held together (usually) by twist.
Extruded monofilament yarns that have the cross-section and appearance of natural straw.
(1) a continuous-filament single yarn in which there is no twist, (2) a multi-fold yarn in which there is no folding twist. Note 1: some fibrous yarns are described as twistless, since the fibres may be held together by adhesive temporarily e.g., until incorporated in fabrics. Varieties of core-spun yarn and scaffolding yarn have appeared with this description after solvent-removal of one component. Note 2.. Zero-twist continuous-filament yams usually become twisted by over-end withdrawal e.g., from a pirn in a loom shuttle.
Yarn; folded, doubled, plied
A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in one operation, e.g., two-fold yarn, three-fold yarn, etc. Note: in some sections of the textile industry, e.g., the marketing of hand-knitting yams, these yarns are referred to as two-ply, three-ply, etc.
A yarn that differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities relate to an increased input of one or more of its components or to the inclusion of periodic effects such as knots, loops, curls, slubs or the like.
The yellow discoloration that may develop on textile materials during processing, use, or storage.
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