Cutting through the jargon
This glossary is a resource aimed at helping share and simplify both generic and industry specific information, expertise and knowledge. This service is provided as a committment to visitors to our site and the industry as whole. Although we aim to ensure that all the content is correct, please bear in mind that some areas of the industry move fast and terminology and its application can change.
A heavy, soft fabric with a specked pebbly surface. Used for drapery, upholstery.
A veil-cloth for a woman, often worn tucked into the side of the waist and drawn upward over the back and the head, the free end being draped over the shoulder. Literally, 'a wrap'.
The application of oil to a fabric (usually linseed oil) to seal it and made it waterproof.
A treatment that allows a fabric to resist staining by oily substances.
Descriptive of textile material on which oil globules do not spread.
Unscoured or undyed knitting wool or wool dyed before spinning and containing added oil not subsequently removed.
Olefin (fibre) (us.)
A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethene (ethylene), propane (propylene), or other olefin units. The term includes the iso generic names are polypropylene and polyethylene.
A simple polymer containing a small number of repeating units., note: the oligomer most frequently encountered in the textile industry is the cyclic trimer of poly(ethylene benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) (poly(ethylene terephthalate)), the polymer used for polyester fibre. This material can form deposits during the processing and dyeing of yarns and fabrics.
A high speed yarn spinning process that creates yarn by transferring twist from previously formed yarn to fiber or sliver continuously fed into the spinning machine. The twisting may be done by mechanical methods, rotors or air jets.
Open-end spinning; break spinning
A spinning system in which sliver feedstock is highly drafted, ideally to individual fibre state, and thus creates an open end or break in the fibre flow. The fibres are subsequently assembled on the end of a rotating yarn and twisted in. Various techniques are available for collecting and twisting the fibres into a yarn, the most noteworthy being rotor spinning and friction spinning.
The treatment of fabric at its full width in the unfolded state in contrast to rope-form processing. The fabric may be carried on rollers through the processing media or be held on a roller, as in dyeing.
The action of separating closely packed fibres from each other at an early stage in the processing of raw material into yam.
Cloth used to make garments used by Opera Houses. Costumes for Opera Singers.
A substance that is added to an uncoloured or a coloured textile material to increase the apparent reflectance in the visible region by conversion of ultra-violet radiation into visible light and so to increase the apparent brightness or whiteness. Also termed fluorescent brightener; optical whitener; fluorescent whitening agent; brightening agent.
(1) parallelism of fibres, usually as a result of a combing or attenuating action on fibre assemblies causing the fibres to lie substantially parallel to the axis of the web or strand. (2) a predominant direction of linear molecules in the fine structure of fibres. Note 1: in man-made fibres orientation is usually parallel to the fibre axis as a result of extrusion stretching, or drawing. In natural fibres the predominant direction is determined during growth, for example a helix around the fibre axis in cotton. Note 2: unoriented structures are those in which orientation is absent. Disoriented structures are those in which orientation has been reduced or eliminated as a result of a disrupting treatment.
A medium to heavy weight fabric with wide horizontal ribs . May be knit or woven. Used for women's apparel, upholstery, drapery.
A fabric with a design motif traced (outlined) with embroidery stitches.
A quilted fabric in which the quilting stitches follow the motif of a print design.
The constant weight of textile material obtained by drying at a temperature of 105 ± 3˚c.
Heavy weight wool melton used for coatings and other heavy garments.
Dyeing of a print or yarn dyed fabric in a shade which does not totally cover the original design.
Usually refers to printing over a previously dyed fabric, however yarn dyes, cross dyes and previously printed fabrics are also sometimes overprinted.
A fabric with a single filling yarn woven over and under 2 smaller warp yarns. Commonly found in cotton shirtings, but oxfords are produced in a wide variety of fibers and weights for many uses, mainly in apparel.
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Did You Know...
At the cutting edge
Hainsworth cloth was worn by soldiers from the reign of George III to Waterloo, the Crimean campaign, the Boer War and the two world wars.